Background and Objective
There are two general studies related to climate change: mitigation and adaptation. R&D (research and development) related to the mitigation of climate change has been assiduously promoted up to now. Studies on the mechanisms of climate change, the impact assessments of climate change, and the identification of the upper limit of GHG (greenhouse gases) allowable for the sustainable operation of the climate system [as mentioned in Article 2 of the UNFCCC (the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)] are just a few of the many examples. On the other hand, R&D related to anthropogenic adaptation to climate change has been increasing steadily. One instance of this is examining anthropogenic adaptations that can ensure sustainable development in various climate change scenarios.
In AR5 (fifth assessment report) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), it has been articulated that both mitigation and adaptation are indispensable for solving climate change issues.
However, until very recently, they were considered independent, therefore adaptation has hardly been focused on in Japan.
In summer 2015, a national adaptation policy by the Japanese government will be established, and R&D on support for effective and efficient climate change policies with a balance between mitigation and adaptation is expected for international negotiation on climate change adaptation policies for developing states based on the Cancun agreements.
To provide evaluation criteria for effects and efficiency concerning mitigation and adaptation for policy makers, cost-benefit analysis is necessary. Benefits with mitigation and adaptation include not only economic but also non-economic aspects such increased of global wellbeing and the acquisition of security by improving infrastructures for disaster prevention.
In this project, mitigation and adaptation will be evaluated using various indices including subjective wellbeing and livelihood assets in addition to conventional economic indices, thereby supporting the development of an effective and efficient climate change policy based on mitigation and adaptation.